The use of the term dates back to jutaijutsu historical documents (Kukami Monjo, 九 鬼 文書) of an influential classical school of martial arts, the Kukishin-ryu
(九 鬼神 流) nobles of Ayabe, or more likely their recompilation by an master of this style, Takamatsu Chosui, in the first half of the twentieth century. In fact,
the term has spread mainly through the work of students or members of the circle of Takamatsu. Among these, the best known are Hatsumi Yoshiaki, his direct student, Tsunehisa Tanemura
and Manaka Fumio who founded respectively styles: Bujinkan, Genbukan and Jinenkan centered around gender practices ninjutsu which Takamatsu Chosui had declared heir.